Pituitary Gland

Basic Information

  • The pituitary gland, also referred to as the Hypophysis is an endocrine gland that weighs 0.5 g (0.02 oz.).

  • It controls the functions of the other endocrine gland and critical body functions such as growth, reproduction, maintenance of the body’s fluid balance, metabolism, lactation, sexual development and blood vessel tone.

  • The pituitary gland (Hypophysis) secretes nine different hormones that control homeostasis.


  • The pituitary gland (Hypophysis) is located in a protected area at the base of the brain.

  • It lies in a small deep fossa, on the floor of the cranial cavity.

  • It is surrounded by a capsule of a connective tissue.

  • Directly above the pituitary gland lies the Hypothalamus.

Parts of the Pituitary Gland

The pituitary gland (Hypophysis) has two parts to it which have different internal structure and functions.

  1. Adenohypophysis

  2. Neurohypophysis

  • The adenohypophysis is the larger, anterior lobe.

- It forms from the roof of the oral cavity.

  • The neurohypophysis is the smaller, posterior lobe.

- It develops from the forebrain.







Human Anatomy and Physiology By: Silverstein Copyright 1980

Understanding Psychology ~ Glencoe by Richard A. Kasschau